Joan Bybee and her colleagues present a new theory of the evolution of grammar that links structure and meaning in a way that directly challenges most contemporary versions of generative grammar. This study focuses on the use and meaning of grammatical markers of tense, aspect, and modality and identifies a universal set of grammatical categories. The authors demonstrate that the semantic content of these categories evolves gradually and that this process of evolution is strikingly similar across unrelated languages. Through a survey of seventy-six languages in twenty-five different phyla, the authors show that the same paths of change occur universally and that movement along these paths is in one direction only. This analysis reveals that lexical substance evolves into grammatical substance through various mechanisms of change, such as metaphorical extension and the conventionalization of implicature. Grammaticization is always accompanied by an increase in frequency of the grammatical marker, providing clear evidence that language use is a major factor in the evolution of synchronic language states. ´´The Evolution of Grammar´´ has important implications for the development of language and for the study of cognitive processes in general.
Psychopaths seem to be everywhere. They are on the news and at the movies. People who lack empathy, be they ruthless entrepreneurs or crazed spree killers, are frequently labelled psychopathic; the charming socialiser is just as suspect as the awkward antisocial loner. The conception of what defines a psychopath seems to be a morass of contradictions, the only consistency being the supposition of a lack of empathy. The Psychopath Factory: How Capitalism Organises Empathy examines how the requirements, stimuli, affects and environments of work condition our empathy. In some cases work calls for no-empathy characters who don´t blink or flinch in the face of danger or crack under pressure. In other cases capitalism requires empathy in spades - charming, friendly, sensitive and listening managers, customer service agents and careers. When workers are required to either ignore their empathy to do a job or dial it up to increase productivity, they are entering a psychopathic modality. The affective blitz of work, flickering screens, emotive content, vibrating alerts and sounding alarms erode our sensitivities whilst we are modulated with attention stimulants, social lubricants and so called antianxiety drugs. This is amidst a virulent and exacerbating climate of competition and frenzied quantification. Capitalism pressures us to feign empathy and leverage social relationships on one hand whilst being cold and pragmatic on the other. We are passionate and enthusiastic whilst keeping a professional distance. Sympathy, care, compassion and altruism are important; The Psychopath Factory: How Capitalism Organises Empathy argues that it is a mistake to presuppose that empathy can achieve these. Rather than being subject to the late capitalist organisation of our empathy, psychopathy could be a means of escape. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Barnaby Edwards. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/adbl/029566/bk_adbl_029566_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Now fully updated with more than 2,000 new images, 200 new videos, and new content throughout, Diagnostic Ultrasound, 5th Edition, by Drs. Carol M. Rumack and Deborah Levine, remains the most comprehensive and authoritative ultrasound resource available . Spanning a wide range of medical specialties and practice settings, it provides complete, detailed information on the latest techniques for ultrasound imaging of the whole body; image-guided procedures; fetal, obstetric, and pediatric imaging; and much more. Up-to-date guidance from experts in the field keep you abreast of expanding applications of this versatile imaging modality and help you understand the ´´how´´ and ´´why´´ of ultrasound use and interpretation.
MR is a powerful modality. At its most advanced, it can be used not just to image anatomy and pathology, but to investigate organ function, to probe in vivo chemistry, and even to visualise the brain thinking. However, clinicians, technologists and scientists struggle with the study of the subject. The result is sometimes an obscurity of understanding, or a dilution of scientific truth, resulting in misconceptions. This is why MRI from Picture to Proton has achieved its reputation for practical clarity. MR is introduced as a tool, with coverage starting from the images, equipment and scanning protocols and traced back towards the underlying physics theory. With new content on quantitative MRI, MR safety, multi-band excitation, Dixon imaging, MR elastography and advanced pulse sequences, and with additional supportive materials available on the book´s website, this new edition is completely revised and updated to reflect the best use of modern MR technology.